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Printed circuit boards are used in practically anything electronic, including toys for kids, cars, and machinery for industrial manufacture. PCBs are crucial to numerous applications and are made from fibreglass, epoxy, metal components, and a green solder mask.

The components are arranged on it to enable the PCB to perform as intended. The PCB’s functionality is what matters most. Even if a tiny SMT resistor is not installed correctly or a little track is removed from the PCB maker, the PCB may still not function. Therefore, the parts must be put together correctly. When components are assembled, the PCB is referred to as an “assembled PCB” or “PCBA.” Here are some types of PCB Assembly processes:

Rigid-Flex Printed Circuit Board Assembly

Printed circuit boards, known as rigid-flex boards, combine stiff and flexible board technology. Depending on the application’s architecture, most rigid-flex boards are built from many layers of flexible circuit substrates outwardly or internally connected to one or more rigid boards. The flexible substrates are frequently moulded into the flexed curve during production or installation since they are intended to be flexible at all times.

Mixed Assembly

You cannot assemble various components using SMT technology, although it has replaced other mounting techniques in PCB fabrication. Then, the same board must be used for THT and SMT assembly. A mixed assembly uses various techniques but doesn’t require solder paste in the manufacturing process. Many components need to get welded with a surface mount arrangement on the board, except a few speciality components that are not accessible through the SMT process and must be constructed using mixed PCB.

Through-Hole Assembly

Electronic circuits are constructed utilising the through-hole assembly technique, in which leads are employed to position the components. It describes the assembly procedure, in which the leads are inserted into the pre-drilled holes before the components are joined to the board using either wave soldering or manual soldering. PCB design has historically used multi-layer, double-layer, and single-sided boards. Through-hole assembly is challenging to adapt to the needs of contemporary electronics.

Today, SMT technology has largely taken the place of through-hole assembly in the production of PCBs. However, some applications, such as those utilising electrolytic capacitors, connections, and substantial transformers, still call for through-hole installation.

BGA Assembly

Surface-mount devices called ball grid arrays (BGA), also called chip carriers, are used for packaging integrated circuits. Microprocessors are installed permanently via BGA packaging. A BGA can accommodate more connector pins than a dual in-line or flat design. Instead of merely using the edge, the device’s entire bottom surface can be used. A perimeter-only type frequently has shorter traces than another, which improves performance at high speeds. These traces connect the package’s leads to the balls or wire and connect the package and the die.

SMT Assembly

Surface Mount Technology, or SMT, is the official name. SMT is a technique for attaching parts or components to circuit boards. SMT’s superior results and enhanced effectiveness have compelled the replacement of traditional PCB assembly methods. In the past, through-hole assembly was mostly used by PCB manufacturers to add components. However, welding technology has replaced the previous assembling technique in SMT.

All electronic businesses, including those in computers, phones, smartphones, home appliances, etc., employ PCBs made using the SMT assembly technique. Printing solder paste, mounting components, reflow soldering, and carrying out AOI or AXI are the basic procedures in SMT assembly.

Conclusion on Types of PCB Assembly Processes

Most PCBs that deliver high voltage or current have a separate plane for ground connections. The top layer’s electronic components are “Vias” connecting to the inner GND plane or signals layer. You can use any of the above processes, but ensure to have the right equipment.